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New World Wine Maker Blog

A South African abroad

Or rather 11 South African wine students plundering through the European wine scene …

It all started in February. We received the enthusiastic whatsapp in the midst of harvest. All of us 5kgs lighter, exhausted and covered in bruises we all dreamt of a summer holiday. Pairing cheese fondues and chocolate with Chasselas in Switzerland and then progressing onto Sangrias in San Sebastian, Mojiňos in Madrid with a few wine tastings sprinkled in-between.  What more could one want?

Four months later, and after 18 hours of flying, the class arrived in Geneva for our Summer School adventure. We arrived – tired, hungry and cold ready for a European summer only to be greeted with rain. But very quickly the situation was rectified by the consumption of Chasselas. Chasselas – the Justin Bieber of Swiss wine. You either hate it or you love it. Or you hated it until it started releasing bomb singles like “Love yourself” (or in wine terms – the 1992 vintage).

And so began the daily assault on our bodies. Each day we were exposed to a plethora of Chasselas and other early ripening cultivar wines – from cheeky Gamays to sophisticated Pinot noirs. Pickled with the high acidity wines of the northern hemisphere we were then satiated with bread, cheese and cold meats to soak up the alcohol so we were ready for more tastings, cellar tours, industry-related trips and technical knowledge lectures.

The Swiss wine industry was a total game-changer – with its 1% total export it’s like the quiet kid in the class who keeps to themselves but once they open up you realise the dynamic (or biodymanic) personality inside which totally shocks everyone with their Dungeons and Dragons skills (which again, like Chasselas, you either get it or you really, really don’t).

In frenzy of drinking our way through the Swiss countryside we took a day to drive to France – to Burgundy in particular. Where we enjoyed (or didn’t enjoy…) the oxidised white  wine style of Jura, explored the underground Disney villain-esque cellars of Burgundy, and ended the day with a visit to Clos Vougeout, a massive 50,4 ha single vineyard of Pinot noir.

Our time in Switzerland came to end and we said au revoir to the green landscape, Mount Blanc and Chasselas and shouted Hola to Espaňa!

Starting at the north of Spain we experienced our first taste of true Spanish wines. From the old-world cellar which, to put it delicately did not know what cellar hygiene was, to the clean-shaven, oxidation-phobic bodega we could not have picked two more contrasting wineries to visit. The petri-dish cellar, overgrown with penicilium and other fungi even David Attenborough wouldn’t talk about, produced some distinct metallic wines (possibly as a result of the flour/blood combo still used to treat the fermentation barrels) while the Taylor Swift (young, trendy, expensive and high maintenance) cellar produced full-bodied, fruity Tempranillos which suited the South African palate like a brandy and coke on night out.

In the middle of Spain we experienced the Spanish culture, starting with tapas and sightseeing and ending (like any self-professed Stellenbosch student would) with the debauchery of the Spanish nightlife where even the chaperones Despacito-ed the night away.

Further south we started to hit the top shelf of the liquor cabinet. While some still can’t drink brandy without the bitter memories of first year’s bad decisions  the rest enjoyed learning about the similarities between the South African and Spanish brandy-making methods (with a discrete scoff and “Nah, South African’s better hey” when out of earshot of the winemaker). The sherry tasting was more successful, with a flick of his wrist and a long silver taster (which personally I think was a wand because you’ve got to be magical to pour sherry like that without spilling) the winemaker poured barrel testers for us into glasses 1m below.

We ended the trip with an excursion to the eastern coast of Spain. And what better way to end off a trip of a life-time than to be supplied with bubbly in Barcelona? The tour through the 6 storey riddling and aging cellar for one of the Cava producers rivalled the 4 storey night club in Madrid.

Finally we returned, with impressive technical knowledge, damaged livers, a higher tolerance for alcohol, international connections, a close knit group of friends and an eagerness to blow up the wine industry with our dreams of installing cranes in cellars, oxidising white wines and planting Chasselas.

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ANTON SWARTS: SENIOR WINEMAKER AT SPIER AND CAPE WINE MASTER

Q. When and where were you born ? 

Reply with generous smile “I was bred and born in the picturesque town of Paarl during the 1975 vintage on 30th January.” Then adds “The same day that Ernö Rubik applied for his patent of his “Magic Cube” which later became known as Rubik’s Cube.”

Q. Where did you study ? 

“Not a straight answer !  I studied at Elsenberg College with the Cape Technikon doing the National diploma in Agriculture focussing on Viticulture, Vegetable production and Pomology.” Then adds with a smile “I am more qualified as a viticulturist than a winemaker.  To be honest , winemaking wise I am more or less self taught with 18 years of industry experience. In 1999, I started as a general harvest hand under the watchful  eye of Chris Roux at the old Wamakersvallei Winery now Wellington Wines. Then an opportunity presented itself and moved me to their bottling and cellar facility in Epping  as the supervisor. At that stage  I knew the very basics  about winemaking and could kick myself for not paying more attention in Class ! I was immediately caught up in the whole fascination of the wine world and just wanted to know more. This led me to the Cape Wine Academy (that you started) where I began the prelim course to educate myself more about this “nectar of the Gods”. I eventually became 100th Cape Wine Master in 2017.” Then added “I must say it was the opportunities that my employers, Spier Wines, that gave me the capability of education  and the belief in me for promoting me through the years without which I could never have got to where I am today.”

Q. How long have you been with Spier ?

“18 years and counting…..I started in June 1999 as a cellar Supervisor in the bottling facility known as Cape Central  Packaging. We bottling for various customers . This became Ashwood Wines and  Winepack and was bought by Wine Corp now known as Spier. “

Q. Do you consider your approach to winemaking different to others ?

“My job requires me to source wines and blend different tiers  at different price points  so I don’t actually make wine !”

Q. So describe what you do ?

“I am one of the senior winemakers at Spier and form part of a winemaking team that functions in the Secondary Winemaking Department. I help with the procurement of wines from our outside, contracted cellars who make wines for our specific requirements and our  different labels. I relook the various components that we have sourced and begin to finalise the blends and plan to bring the bulk wines in for blending and bottling. This is a year long process and covers the whole range of wines  including specialty wines  such as Woolworths low kilojoule wines and others.”

Q. Do you have a preference for any particular variety ? 

“I couldn’t chose one variety over another ! However I do have a fancy for such diverse varieties like Pinot Noir and Shiraz that have totally different origins. I also love South African Pinotage.  I also love chenin blanc and believe it is to South Africa what Riesling is to Germany. Of course, it also makes some of our best brandies.” After some thought “I am also fascinated by Sangiovese, Nebbiolo, Touriga Nacional and Tempranillo.

Q. Have you been influenced by any particular winemaker or region ?

“Not really although  Germany, Burgundy, the Mosel in particular and the Rhone .”

Q. How involved do you get in the vineyard ?

“Not much. We have a team of viticulturists who spend 24/7 looking after our precious vines.”

Q. What would you consider your greatest achievement as a winemaker ?

“Winning awards for your wines  is always a great achievement but what I really love about  my job is to produce wines  that people enjoy. To see the satisfaction on the faces of people enjoying our wine is the most simplistic way of understanding a great achievement.” Then adds “On top of that I guess becoming a Cape Wine Master is right up there. Being selected for Team South Africa to compete in blind tastings overseas two years in a row is also very special.”

Q. Have you developed any secrets in your winemaking ? 

“If I tell you I would have to kill you !!  However, seriously, I always try to over deliver in quality and the wine  must have body, aroma and flavour. I like my  wines to be mouth-watering.

Q. What do you consider your keys in the cellar ? 

”Patience, Accuracy and Attention to detail “

Q. How important  is modern winemaking equipment to you ? 

“At Spier moder winemaking equipment is essential. It helps us get the perfect berry into the cellar so that we can make it into perfect wine !”

Q. What advice do you have to wine drinkers ?

“To enjoy your glass of wine and not to analyse it.  Enjoyment is what wine is all about.”

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The Wonderful World of Lees

Have you ever wondered if there is any value in the lees that you accumulate during the early portions of harvest and wine processing? Have you questioned the various uses associated with wine lees?

Then you’re in luck! Consulting subscribers now have access to my recent article, Wine Lees: A Powerful Tool for Winemakers in the Learning Center that discusses the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of wine lees during wine production. If you’re looking for a way to make your wine lees work for you, then this Article may help.

If you’re missing out on Denise Gardner Winemaking’s Learning Center, the information at the bottom of this blog post can help you get started!

Lees, or the settled portion of yeast after primary fermentation, offers several opportunities for its continued use through wine production. During good vintage years, clean lees can provide molecular components, such as nitrogen-containing compounds or polysaccharides that naturally alter the wine’s mouthfeel over time. Depending on lees contact time, the mechanism of contact, and the degree of yeast autolysis, lees can also contribute aromas or flavors to the wine that may offer changes in complexity.

Many winemakers opt to keep lees in barrels with the wines intended for longer-term aging, and if they are needed, remove the lees from those wines. A more traditional practice, bâtonnage, is a form of lees contact in which white [Chardonnay] Burgundy wines stored in barrel include routine stirring of the lees. Another great stylistic benchmark region associated with bâtonnage and lees contact is Muscadet produced from the Loire Valley (France). On Muscadet wine bottles, an additional term “sur lie” can be found to indicate this process.

 


The selection of active dry yeast for primary fermentation can have an effect on your wine lees’ chemistry post-primary fermentation. Read the The Wonderful World of Lees article to find out how! Photo of active dry yeast by: Denise M. Gardner

 

Many sparkling wine styles produced by the traditional method (i.e., Méthode Traditionelle or Méthode Champenoise) also sit on lees through a portion of its production. After the second fermentation in bottle, the lees settle to the bottom of the bottle, and remain in contact with the wine over a defined period of time. When it is time to remove the lees from the bottle, each bottle is riddled. Over time, the riddling process drops the lees into the neck of the bottle where it is disgorged and re-capped. The contact with lees through the bottle’s maturation time alters mouthfeel and sensory characteristics associated with sparkling wine.

Finally, lees can also be used as a problem-solving tool in the winery, especially for wines that have specific flaws. For example, lees additions can aid in the removal or reduction of off-odors. Their addition has been shown to help reduce hydrogen sulfide and, occasionally, volatile phenols in addition to other residual contaminants.

Keeping wine in contact with lees should not be taken lightly, as several problems can emerge if the wines are not monitored or treated properly. To find out more about lees, the ways that you can use it in the winery, and potential risks associated with lees contact time, visit the complete article, Wine Lees: A Powerful Tool for Winemakers in the Learning Center.

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Grape juice: a Microbial battle field

A sip of context: In one of our Oenology modules we are learning about the biochemical makeup of grape juice and how the yeast is built to combat the difficult environment it’s placed in and still manages to produce the glorious product of wine.

Jerry, an unsuspecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, was produced the normal way, along with all his 1×106 brothers was frozen and stored. A happy life, he was content to sit and wait until his strain was chosen to go to the cellar. Some called the cellar the Promised land, others called it the battle field. Either way Jerry knew his life would never be the same, he was no longer allowed to sit idly by; he would have to live up to his potential.

The protective bag he had once called home was cut open; a giant scoop bore down on him and a sample of his kin. They were then placed in a warm liquid, all the while enjoying the change in temperature. A strange powder was pored over them, suddenly the cells were filled with energy, Jerry thought to himself ‘this must be that energetic yeast nutrient we’ve heard about’. A larger yeast cell made his presence known: “Attention cells! You are no longer in your small protective bags anymore! You are now part of a population, we are expected to expand and grow for the next 10 days, but first a test. You will be exposed to the harshest environment you could ever imagine; Sauvignon Blanc. We are talking a pH of 2.9 and an acidity of 10.11 g/l. There will be sulphur, there will be other microbes that want to take our supplies and through all of this, if we succeed we will die anyway. This is your chance to shine, this is your purpose, are you ready!?”

Jerry was tentative, however the yeast nutrient made him feel strong; he could feel his cell membrane expanding and his size increasing. He was ready.

The first wave of Sauvignon Blanc was on its way.  Still exposed to the heat, Jerry could feel his energy increasing, he watched the skies as the Sauvignon blanc rained down on them. A couple of his brothers fell as soon as the juice touched them. Others wavered a little; however the majority of them, including Jerry, remained strong. The bigger cell was right, the conditions were harsher than imaginable, but in same environment there was plenty of nitrogen and sugar for Jerry to use.

Glucose, a beautiful six carbon chain emerged in front of Jerry, he actively transported it into his system, hoping it would form something none toxic. That was the catch 22, he had to consume it to survive, but what it produced all depended on his internal environment.  On the horizon he spotted an amino acid, it wasn’t proline so he knew he could consume it. He couldn’t believe his luck, amino acids were in high demand now that the population had expanded to a little over 1×107 and showed few signs of slowing down. Actively he consumed the amino acid; fortunately it was a branch chain amino acid; meaning it would go through transamination and oxidation to form a fatty acid, from there it would react with ethanol and become something beautiful: an ethyl ester.

Thinking about the lovely smell surrounding him, he was grateful that some of the ethanol was consumed to make it. The ethanol had been increasing at an alarming rate, so much so that the microbes he once considered competition had already died off.

A day later the population had already reached 1×108 cells. Nitrogen was in very short supply and the sugar reserves were depleting. The environment had become harsher, the sugar that once sustained them had been converted into alcohol, and the only way to get some nitrogen was to scavenge from the husk of what was once a yeast cell. Everywhere Jerry turned he saw one of his kin, trying to absorb as much sugar as possible, with the hope it would turn into a flavour compound and not something toxic.

Jerry began feeling weak; he could no longer oxidize fatty acids to expand his membrane and walls. The acid levels were high and the sugar levels were low. Glycerol made movement difficult and the ethanol levels started to get to him.

All though the environment was harsh, it smelt nice, sort of like cut grass on a summer’s day mixed with dashes of stone fruit and citrus. This is what that big cell must have been talking about, what Jerry and his clan have been working for, for all this time. Jerry started to sink to the bottom and settled in a layer of husks, although this was the end he was satisfied that he had achieved his purpose: he created a fantastic wine, and his legacy would last for months or even years to come.

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Cellar vs Garage

Recently, I was lucky enough to be gifted a wine-making kit, from my grandfather. Being a winemaking student, I couldn’t fight off the excitement and curiosity to give garage-fermenting a bash. Before getting too excited and starting this home-ferment experiment, I would strongly recommend doing a little bit of research.

After making wine in a cellar, the poor wine-kit’s instruction manual was subjected to a lot of scrutiny from my side. For start, what appeared to be a rather fun and easy task turned out to be a lot more complicated than I had hoped it would be. After consulting with my ‘Yeast Prof’, ‘MLF Prof” and ‘Wine Prof’, we had concluded that, for the sake of producing a drinkable wine, I would have to deviate from the wine-kit’s original instructions. Topping up my Shiraz reserve with water on a regular basis just wasn’t going to cut it for this young lady!

A few helpful tips to keep in mind when attempting a home ferment, regardless of what the bizarre instruction manual recommends: The instruction manual will tell you to thoroughly read and follow instructions; do not fall for this trickery! If you are uncertain about something, I would definitely suggest asking someone in the industry for their opinion, if you are new to the winemaking-game and are using the kit as your first attempt at making wine, don’t hesitate to ask Google.

Using a beer kit fermenter is recommended, it is easy to clean, store and already comes with a fermentation/bubble cap. Winter is the perfect time of the year to use your garage as a type of cold room for a white wine fermentation, the cooler temperatures act as a natural and more cost-effective cooling system for your fermenter. In summer, I think red wine would be a better option due to the much warmer and more ideal temperatures.

The kit I have strongly suggests (they tell you…) that you rack your wine a few days after inoculation. They reason that this is due to the secondary fermentation that should occur straight after fermentation, yet they supply consumers with no malolactic-bacteria and the Shiraz reserve is pasteurized. It is also said that one should rack again after an additional 10 days, a full secondary fermentation/MLF in 10 days? – A winemaker’s dream! I would therefore skip this step altogether, this also lowers the risk of oxidation inside your fermenter and increases the palatability of the final product.

During the garage winemaking process, I would also suggest that you collect as many empty wine bottles as possible. It isn’t necessary to buy new bottles, as you can sanitise the used ones before filling and sealing them with a cork. Corks can be sourced online and are also fairly inexpensive. If you prefer beer to wine, fear not, you can also use beer bottles and screw caps. These offer a perfectly sized portion of wine (2 glasses) and can be enjoyed chilled, straight out of the bottle! If using screw caps, it is important to remember that wine can continue fermenting in the bottle, even if fermentation appears to be complete, for this reason I would suggest that you drink the wine as soon as possible.

It is incredibly difficult to produce a faultless wine from one of these kits, due to the constant risk of contamination as well as a higher oxidation risk. It is my personal belief that any garage winemaker that can produce a drinkable final product, should consider furthering their skills by taking a winemaking course or making wine in a cellar. If your wine isn’t drinkable, remember that you can always cook with it instead!

Garage winemaking is incredibly fun but unfortunately falls short in comparison to the cellar. There is nothing quite as exciting as hand selecting your grapes and being elbow deep in fermenting skins and juice doing punchdowns.

After my first harvest, I quickly learned to stop apologising to every winemaker I met for my tannin and red-wine stained hands, mostly because everyone else’s hands looked exactly the same! Feeling small berries burst as you push down on the crush-cake in the basket press and watching deep purple droplets splatter out against your ‘harvest jeans’ cannot be replaced by diluting grape must in your garage.

It is also a lot easier to control the wine and fermentation process in a cellar, with Carbon Dioxide tanks at the ready to combat oxidation, and temperature regulated tanks to ensure optimal fermentation conditions, it’s hard to go wrong. Winemaking is by no means an easy task, you are constantly kept on your toes and have to watch your wines like a parent watches a pre-schooler with a pair of scissors – on high alert and ready to pounce if something goes wrong.

I don’t think anything can quite compare to the anticipation of popping the bung on an oak barrel, religiously checking up on your wines and watching them improve weekly. Wood chips in a plastic fermenter just aren’t the same. If you are a wine enthusiast, a wine drinker or even just perhaps a curious bystander, the garage wine-kit can be a very exciting and new process to try. If you are a winemaker, it may be a bit difficult to overlook the minor things like, “do not rehydrate the yeast” or “leave an air gap of about 1 litre”, but I would like to encourage and challenge you to give it a go. Even if the final product isn’t amazing, it is still a very entertaining and enjoyable experiment!

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Using MLF to create a buttery wine or not

by Natasha Pretorius, Lynn Engelbrecht & Maret du Toit – Wineland Media

Various factors influence the amount of diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol produced during fermentation impacting the buttery aroma.

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary fermentation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)This process can occur spontaneously or can be induced by using MLF starter cultures. Currently, the commercially available MLF starter cultures belong to the species Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of starter cultures to induce MLF is preferred to avoid the risks associated with spontaneous MLF. The starter cultures can be inoculated simultaneously with the yeast, known as co-inoculation, or after the completion of alcoholic fermentation, known as sequential inoculation. MLF is a desirable process as the decarboxylation of l-malic acid to l-lactic acid and carbon dioxide decreases the acidity and increases the microbial stability of wine. This process also influences the organoleptic properties of wine.

In addition to malic acid, some MLF starter cultures can also degrade citric acid usually present in grape must at concentrations of 0.031 g/ℓ to 0.42 g/ℓ. The metabolism of citric acid leads to the production of acetate, d-lactate, diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (Figure 1). The production of acetate is one of the reasons for the 0.1 g/ℓ to 0.3 g/ℓ volatile acidity increase during MLF as citric acid metabolism is linked to malic acid degradation.

Figure 1.

 

When present at low concentrations, diacetyl can contribute to the complexity of wine. Diacetyl has a buttery aroma which contributes to wine complexity when present at concentrations above its sensory threshold value of 0.2 mg/ℓ to 2.8 mg/ℓ. However, high diacetyl concentrations above 5 mg/ℓ can give rise to an overwhelming buttery aroma that masks the fruity and/or vegetative aromas in wines. Diacetyl can be reduced to the less sensory active acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (Figure 1) with much higher sensory thresholds of 150 mg/ℓ and 600 mg/ℓ, respectively. The reduction of diacetyl to these compounds is therefore encouraged during winemaking if a buttery style wine is not wanted. Several factors influence this reduction, as well as the sensory perception of diacetyl in wines.

A few of these factors include:

Composition of grape must

The grape must composition influences the concentrations, as well as the sensory perception of diacetyl. There are three main components of grape must that can influence the diacetyl concentrations during fermentation. These components are:

  • pH

Diacetyl is more rapidly reduced to acetoin during the fermentation of grapes from warm climate regions that have a higher pH. Wines from these regions might therefore have less diacetyl than wines from cool climate regions that are usually associated with a low pH.

  • Citric acid concentration

Grape must with a higher citric acid concentration leads to increasing concentrations of acetate, d-lactate, diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. Excess acetate and d-lactate causes over acidification and inhibits bacterial growth thus prolonging MLF. A longer MLF duration can result in more diacetyl being produced during the fermentation.

  • Phenolic compounds

Several studies have previously indicated that diacetyl in white wines was less stable and more likely to be reduced to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol than in red wines. However, the buttery aroma of diacetyl is more likely to occur in white wines than in red wines, due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic acid. These phenolic compounds lower the buttery aroma in red wines by binding to diacetyl.

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