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New World Wine Maker Blog

Meet Dirk Tredoux: Cellar Master at Fort Simon

Q. When and where were you born ? 

“I was born in Cape Town on 16th September 1978”

Q. Where did you study ?

“Initially I studied Agriculture at Elsenburg in 2003 and 2004. I then travelled overseas and that was when my passion for winemaking developed.  However , growing up in the Winelands  I had  developed an interest in my childhood”

Q. You went back to Elsenburg ? 

“Yes. My interest wine really evolved while I was overseas so when I returned I went back to Elsenburg to finish my cellar technology.”

Q. And after Elsenburg ?

“I then set out to gain as much experience as I could in as short a period as possible.  I worked in esteemed cellars such as Asara, Jordan, Vrede en Lust, Amani and Morgenster.”

Q. Do you consider your approach to winemaking to be different to others ? 

“Every terroir you work with is different to another. You have to develop your own unique cellar and vineyard  methods and practice that suits the particular terroir.”

Q. How involved do you get in the vineyard ?

“I believe quality begins in the vineyard and therefore I try to be in the vineyard as much as possible. One needs to get to know your vineyards better year by year so that you are able to read your vineyards better and  adapt and fine-tune your vineyard practices according to conditions for that specific year.”

Q. Do you have any varieties you prefer to work with ?

“ I like working with Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet  Sauvignon.”

Q. Have you been influenced  by any particular winemaker or wine region ?

“Before working at Fort Simon I have tried to place myself with leading winemakers and cellars  to learn from each of them. For the first five years in the industry I worked with  Carmen Stevens. I  also had the privilege to work alongside Rudi at D’Aria, Jacques at Morgenhof . Sjaak at Jordan and Susan at Vrede en Lust”

Q. What would you consider your greatest achievement as a winemaker ?

“ Bringing  out the best characteristics of the current vintage and improving on previous years.”

Q. What “secrets” have you “developed” that make your wines differ to others ?

“ Well, if I told you it would no longer be a secret !”

Q. How important is modern winemaking equipment in your winemaking ?

“I always welcome new technology, equipment and ideas and I like to experiment which might reflect in my wines.”

Q. Before winemaking did you have any other careers in mind ?

“From as long as I can remember I have had a deep love for nature.  I had wanted to be a Game Ranger but I was told there was no future as a Ranger and certainly no money ! As it happens I feel I made my place in the world of wine.”

Q. And now ?

“Working at Fort Simon which in the heart of the Bottelary  I have the opportunity to work a range of terroir’s and hillsides that go up to 310 metres. These rising slopes give unique and  many varied  elements in my wine creating rich , layered  and complex wines.”

Q. Do you have any dreams ?

“I would like to establish a successful brand that will help raising funds for wildlife conservation”.

Q. What is your greatest joy ? 

“My wonderful family, Maryke my wife and Jean Jacques (18 months) and Philip Dirk (two months)

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2017 Pre-Bloom Disease Management Review and Discussion

Another season of grape growing is upon us and it’s a good time to review important disease management principles and be aware of some of the tools to consider integrating into your vineyard management programs this spring.

First is your annual reminder to check out the NEWA website (Network for Environment and Weather Applications) found at http://newa.cornell.edu. On the home page is a map of the Northeastern U.S. marked with the locations of hundreds of weather stations where historical and ‘up to the hour’ weather data can be viewed. Although is provided free on the internet, it is funded through the New York State IPM program. Click on a weather station near enough to you (denoted by a leaf/rain drop icon) to get weather, insect pest, and disease information you need to make important management decisions that could save you time and money. Clicking on ‘grapes’ under ‘crop pages’ will give you access to forecasting models for all the major diseases, as well as the grape berry moth degree day model that will improve your timing of grape berry moth insecticide sprays later this summer. Each model forecast is accompanied by helpful disease management messages and explanations.

Next, let’s move our minds into the upcoming pre-bloom disease management season. It’s important to recognize that the threat of disease this spring (pre-bloom) is largely determined by the amount of overwintering inoculum in your blocks. The amount of overwintering inoculum is dependent on the amount of disease that developed in your vineyard last year or in previous years. In other words, if you have kept diseases well under control in the past, especially last year, then there will be relatively little for pathogen populations to build on and cause damage, at least initially, this year. Some very practical research by Wayne Wilcox at Cornell nicely illustrates this point with powdery mildew (pm) development in susceptible wine varieties. In blocks where pm was well controlled all season, fewer overwintering structures of the fungal pathogen (chasmothecia) were available the following spring to jump start disease cycles. Early disease pressure was relatively low and early sprays were less critical to good commercial control than in blocks where disease control was poor the previous year. Where there was poor control the previous year, more of the pathogen overwintered to start disease cycles the following spring and early sprays were critical to maintaining successful commercial control. This is not to say that a bad year of pm will automatically be followed by another bad year. But it certainly tilts the odds in favor of the pathogen, especially if for some reason, you can’t manage the timely application of your early disease control program (stuff happens). It also doesn’t mean you can slack off this year if you had good control last year. Remember, there’s the weather. The weather ALWAYS plays an important role too. A good illustration of this is an experience by an organic grape grower who, in an extremely wet season, developed a serious, economically damaging case of black rot. In conventionally managed vineyards there are several very effective chemistries to control black rot, but in organic production there are no real effective fungicides, and control of this disease in organic vineyards must rely heavily on cultural measures that reduce the pathogen’s overwintering population. Of course, the grower did everything he could to sanitize the trellis of overwintering fruit mummies and bury mummies that had fallen to the ground to reduce overwintering inoculum. But fortunately, the following year was bone dry during the fruit susceptibility period and black rot was not even an issue. Had the previous wet season been followed by another wet one, I’m quite certain, the battle for control of black rot in that organic vineyard would have required ‘the kitchen sink’ to avoid losses. Unfortunately, we have no control over the weather and accurate forecasts, especially long term, are not something to rely on. But, we can (and should) strive to control overwintering inoculum levels every year and the best way to do that is good, practical, season-long disease control.

So, begin to wrap your minds around the campaign ahead. If you had poor disease control in some blocks last season, have you reviewed your spray records where control failed AND where it worked well? Where it failed, did you use the wrong material at a critical time?  I’ve had growers discuss their control failures with me only to discover that their timing was fine, but their choice of material did not cover the disease(s) they intended to control. The number of spray materials, what disease each one controls, and how well each one controls each disease, can be bewildering at times…and the list keeps growing and changing. Also, materials that used to be good choices may have become ineffective due to the development of resistance by the pathogens. For example, materials like the strobilurins (Abound, Sovran, Flint, Pristine) are no longer effective at controlling powdery and downy mildew in many parts of the east. In vineyards where this has occurred, using them during the critical fruit protection period (which used to be a great idea!) can now prove disastrous. The sterol inhibitor fungicides (Rally, Elite, Orius, Mettle, Tebusol, Tebustar, Procure, Viticure, etc) are also exhibiting the effects of resistance by the powdery mildew fungus. Though in most cases they still work on powdery to some extent, they are not appropriate for the critical fruit protection period anymore, around and shortly after bloom (products that include the more active difenoconazole are an exception on less susceptible varieties). However, they may be acceptable for maintaining a clean vineyard outside the critical period. Do you have an accurate grasp on that?

Do you have a firm grasp on the critical fruit protection period? The critical period for fruit protection from all diseases generally extends from ‘just before bloom’ to about 4 weeks later. This is the period when you need to be especially vigilant about minimizing spray intervals, using your best materials that cover all the major diseases (Phomopsis, black rot, powdery and downy mildew), focus on good coverage, etc. It is never profitable to try to cut corners during the critical period. However, if you had heavy amounts of black rot in your vineyard the year before, you should assume you have an unhealthy dose of overwintering inoculum in your vineyard this spring, and prevention of leaf lesions in the fruit zone (which would need to be addressed during the first 3-12” of shoot growth, well before the fruit protection period) would also prove to be critical. This goes for other diseases as well (refer back to the previous example with Wayne Wilcox’ powdery mildew experiment). The pre-bloom presence of visible disease in the fruit zone is a big red flag; it means you’ve got potential for serious fruit loss ahead, especially if weather conditions favor the pathogen (wet, warm, humid, calm, cloudy) during the fruit protection period that follows.

Did you record the relative levels of disease that developed in years past for each of your blocks? In order to do this, you need to be able to identify the various diseases and then scout regularly for them. This takes up valuable time but you can streamline your scouting efforts in many ways. Do you know when you would expect to first see each disease? Downy mildew doesn’t become active until about the 5-6 leaf stage. So, you know you can’t expect to see it until about that time or shortly after that. In which blocks are diseases most likely to occur first? Your block or rows next to the woods would be a good place to start, or perhaps your most susceptible variety. Blocks with the most disease last year would be a good place to start. On which parts of the vine do you expect to see diseases appear first? Can recent weather data help you to determine where to look for the disease? For example, if a black rot infection period occurred 2 weeks ago (and you can find this out easily by searching the NEWA website), would you examine the newest growth, the oldest growth, or would you look for lesions on leaves that were currently expanding and most susceptible 2 weeks ago? The answers to these questions can help you streamline your scouting efforts, save time, and improve your expertise.

Do you fully comprehend the susceptibilities of all the varieties you’re growing? You cannot spray premium Vitis vinifera like the hybrids or natives and expect the same results. What are you going to change this year to address disease control breaches in your vinifera? If you had good control last year, are you ready to do it again this year? OR, do you feel lucky and plan to back off until close to bloom to apply your first spray? I always plan for the worst when it comes to the weather and assume it’s going to be wet, cloudy, and warm; ideal for fungal disease epidemics. Consider that here in the east we are growing a highly vulnerable, susceptible host (wine grapes) on the pathogen’s ‘turf’ (the wet, humid eastern U.S.). The good news is that disease control during the pre-bloom period is generally easier (good spray coverage not a problem, low initial disease/inoculum levels, etc.) and cheaper (can use lower fungicide rates, lower spray gallonage, less expensive materials, less time, etc) than in the post bloom period, and a well prepared pre-bloom disease management program will provide extra insurance against problems during bloom and early fruit set, when your fruit ($) is most vulnerable. Now let’s review the common diseases with some of these questions and concepts in mind.

Phomopsis cane and leaf spot is often the first disease problem we face in the pre-bloom period, particularly where trellis systems maintain lots of old and/or dead wood. That’s because old and/or dead wood is where the pathogen overwinters. Therefore, the more old wood you have in your trellis, the more inoculum you can expect to be battling with this spring. Conversely, cane pruned systems have fewer problems with Phomopsis, and cane pruning/minimizing older wood is an important cultural control for this disease. Fortunately, many areas of PA and other parts of the east experienced a relatively dry spring in 2016, helping to minimize new overwintering infections on year-old wood. But, older cordons and especially dead wood and pruning stubs, can carry overwintering inoculum into many subsequent springs. So, if there was little opportunity for new Phomopsis infections to occur last year, you can still be carrying a fair amount of overwintering inoculum in old cordons and pruning stubs.

During early spring rains, Phomopsis spores flush from lesions on wood and are splashed about to invade any new shoot, leaf, and inflorescence they land on…provided the wetting period/temperature combination falls within a minimum range for infection. The basal-most (oldest) internodes of new shoots are the most susceptible to shoot infections simply because they are closest to the inoculum source; wood. In every trial where I have rated shoot infection of Phomopsis, the most severe lesion development was ALWAYS found (on average) on the first (oldest) internode region of the shoot. Lesion development typically got less severe as my rating progressed through internodes 2, 3, 4, and 5. However, once these internodes become fully expanded after the first few weeks in the season, they are no longer susceptible to lesion development. I rarely see Phomopsis lesion development beyond the fifth internode region. That’s why this disease is best dealt with preventatively, very early, during the first few inches of shoot growth. Infections that occur on the first few internodes of new shoots are not only the most likely to occur, but also the most critical; infections of inflorescences (generally on nodes 2-5) can lead to crop loss early (parts of the inflorescence may be ‘bitten off’ by the pathogen) or later during ripening (cluster stem infections in spring move into berries and cause fruit rot and shelling after veraison). And, infections that occur on the basal-most internodes, can’t all be eliminated by judicious hand pruning during the dormant season. So, in blocks where you suspect any risk of early Phomopsis infections, applications of a fungicide (mancozeb or captan are good choices) at no later than 3-6” of shoot growth are a good investment, particularly if you are not cane pruning. Following up with fungicides at 8-12” shoots and immediate pre-bloom are also important pre-bloom applications. Below are some pics from last year’s blog (Figures 1, 2) to help you get a handle on the appearance of lesions on year-old canes. Unfortunately, determining the presence of Phomopsis on older wood generally involves more than just a visual assessment.

Figure 1. Dark brown lesions on the first few internodes on these Chancellor canes are from Phomopsis infections that occurred during early shoot growth in the previous year (when these were green shoots). The buds present are just ready to burst open with new shoot growth that will be very vulnerable to infection during subsequent rain periods.

Figure 2. Although the 1” shoot stage can be vulnerable to damage from this pathogen, the more critical stage is at 3-6” shoots, when more shoot, leaf, and cluster tissue is exposed and is highly susceptible (below). Note the inflorescence in the upper right picture from which Phomopsis has “bitten off” whole branches, dramatically limiting yield potential for that cluster.

Pre-bloom fungicide applications for Powdery mildew are also prudent during early shoot growth for Vitis vinifera cultivars and highly susceptible hybrids, especially in vineyards where control of this disease may have slipped last year (again, because of lots of overwintering inoculum). The primary inoculum for this pathogen generally comes from overwintering structures of the fungus that are lodged within cracks in the bark of cordons and trunks. Spring rain periods of at least 0.1” of precipitation and temperatures of 50 F or more, are the requirements for release of primary inoculum (ascospores) from the overwintering structures. The more mildew that was allowed to develop the year before, the larger the release of spores in early spring, the more primary infections that are likely to occur, and the more critical the need to control the disease early. Sulfur, oils, monopotassium phosphate, and potassium bicarbonate materials can be good choices for mildew management early on. All of these materials can eradicate small existing powdery mildew infections on leaves and cluster stems. Most do not generally offer any protection from future infections and therefore work best if applied often. Sulfur is an exception, and has the added benefit of providing a week or more of protection against future infections. Many of the more experienced growers like to utilize a mancozeb/sulfur combination to control all diseases during the pre-bloom period. This combination is relatively inexpensive, there are no resistance issues, and it works. Remember to read labels and be aware that you can’t mix sulfur and oils, or oils and captan. The tebuconazole products can be used during early pre-bloom to control powdery mildew as well, especially at the 8-10” shoot stage. These materials are very inexpensive and generally provide enough powdery mildew control to keep vines healthy until the immediate pre-bloom spray (they will also nicely control early black rot infections). At immediate pre-bloom and first post bloom, you want to apply your best powdery mildew chemistries like quinoxyfen (Quintec), difenoconazole (Revus Top), metrafenone (Vivando), fluopyram/tebuconazol (Luna Experience), etc. For native juice grapes, powdery mildew is rarely a concern during the early shoot growth stages, especially in the cooler Lake Erie region of Pennsylvania.

A note about fungicide resistance management and powdery mildew: It’s important to plan your powdery mildew management choices ahead of time with resistance management in mind. The easiest way to do this is to become familiar with FRAC (fungicide resistance action committee) codes listed prominently on the first page of fungicide labels. Fungicides with the same FRAC group number can be considered similar enough in their mode of action/chemistry that resistance to one is resistance to all others within that group. Therefore when you rotate fungicides for resistance management, you’re essentially rotating FRAC groups. Some good rules to remember are to avoid using the same FRAC group consecutively, or more than twice in a given season. The development of powdery mildew resistance is always a concern when using materials like the strobilurins (FRAC 11), the sterol inhibitors (FRAC 3), Quintec (FRAC 13), Vivando (FRAC U8), Luna Experience (FRAC 7, 3), Torino (FRAC U6), and Endura (FRAC 7) to name a few. Resistance is generally not a concern for uses of sulfur, oils, bicarbonates, and the potassium salts (mentioned above), or copper.

Next, black rot: One of the best ways to reduce overwintering inoculum of black rot is to scout your vineyard for old fruit mummies and eliminate them from the trellis. Black rot infected fruit mummies that have overwintered in the trellis are the most potent source of inoculum for infections the following spring. No matter how cold it gets over the winter, the pathogen survives just beautifully in colonized fruit remaining in the trellis. But, dropping this inoculum source to the soil, allows microbial degradation/weathering to reduce the potential for mummies to release spores the following spring. It also places the inoculum source much farther from new, susceptible plant tissue up in the trellis. The best time to ‘sanitize’ the trellis is during dormant pruning; weathering has already accomplished some of the removal of last season’s infected fruit from the trellis, and what remains is relatively easy to see and remove by hand. Experiments we conducted several years ago clearly showed that the earlier the mummies are knocked to the ground during the dormant period, the more time for decomposition to break them down before the next season, and the fewer spores released from the ground the following spring to start new disease cycles. Nevertheless, some inoculum on the ground will survive to release spores in spring, and burial of mummies with cultivation will go a step further to eliminate the threat. Removal of ALL old cluster material from the trellis before bud break is important to maintaining good control of this disease.

It may not be necessary to apply a fungicide for black rot at early shoot stages IF good control of this disease was achieved the previous year AND conscientious scouting and trellis sanitation has been implemented. However, the importance of early shoot infections should not be underestimated as I mentioned above, especially if they result in leaf lesions in the fruit zone. For example, inoculations we performed from early May to early June (simulating wet weather and an overwintering inoculum source (mummies) in the trellis) resulted in leaf and shoot lesions in the cluster zone (Figure 3). Those lesions went on to release spores during the critical fruit protection period, resulting in crop loss of 47-77% on those shoots with infected leaves!

An application of mancozeb, ziram, or captan for Phomopsis will also provide control of early black rot infections. The sterol inhibitor fungicides and strobilurins are also good materials for black rot that are more rainfast than mancozeb, ziram, and captan. The sterol inhibitors also provide excellent post infection activity that can be very useful at terminating an infection that has already occurred (but not yet manifested itself).

Figure 3. Early (pre-bloom) black rot leaf infections in the cluster zone provide inoculum that can add to problems with controlling fruit infection after capfall. The two small tan lesions on the leaf at node 2 are just inches from the developing inflorescence found at node 3 (picture on the right). These lesions will release spores during rainfall periods that could easily be splashed to highly susceptible cluster stems pre-bloom, and developing fruit after capfall. Resulting fruit infections will lead to crop loss.

Downy mildew and the 5-6 leaf stage: This stage marks the point at which the downy mildew pathogen first becomes active and is capable of releasing primary spores from inoculum sources that have overwintered on the ground (leaves and other plant material that was infected during the previous season). As with all other diseases, vineyards that developed a fair amount of downy mildew leaf/cluster infection last year will be at higher risk this spring than vineyards that were kept clean. However, overwintering structures of the downy mildew pathogen can survive more than one season in the soil.

Periods of rainfall with temperatures of at least 52 F meet the requirements of spore release and the first infections; plant surfaces must be wet for infection to occur. While scouting for this disease, expect to see it first in wetter areas of your acreage and pay close attention to leaves near the ground (sucker growth, grape seedlings that germinated from shelled berries last fall) which are most likely to become infected first. Therefore, keeping such low growth to a minimum in spring is a prudent control measure that can delay the development of the disease. It also suggests that if you’re planning vine trunk renewal from sucker growth, you will need to apply fungicides to protect that growth from the ground up as the pathogen becomes active.

Spring leaf infections are identified by the yellow ‘oil-spots’ seen on the tops of leaves (Figure 4), coinciding with white, downy sporulation of the pathogen on the undersides of leaves. Inflorescences can be blighted and show sporulation as well. Sporulation occurs during darkness under high relative humidity, and can typically be seen during a morning scout of the vineyard following a wet/humid night. Under optimum temperatures (70-75F), only an hour or two of plant surface wetness may be required for infection to occur, and new infections can produce their own spores with just 5 days.

Many parts of the northeast experienced drought conditions last year, which severely inhibited the development of this disease. Up in Erie County PA, the disease basically took a vacation in 2016, and I could barely find a handful of lesions on unsprayed ‘Chancellor’ leaves and fruit near the ground all summer: it was the perfect year to start renewal trunks! It wasn’t until later in August that rains finally returned and we began to see a few more infections, but for the most part the disease literally could not get off the ground in Erie county PA in 2016. What does this mean for 2017? The great lack of downy mildew in drought hit areas last year means that pre-bloom disease cycles this year will have to rely on overwintering inoculum from previous years (although spores of downy mildew can travel long distances between vineyards, the first infections will arise from inoculum within your vineyard). I have not found any detailed information as to how long the pathogen can survive in the soil, but I guarantee that if you’ve had downy mildew before, then it’s still there. Whether your area was wet or dry last spring, the principle described earlier still applies: vineyards devoid of downy mildew last year (whether from drought or just plain good control) will be easier to keep ‘clean’ in the pre-bloom period this year.

Mancozeb products are good options for the first downy mildew, Phomopsis, and black rot sprays in the pre-bloom period. Ziram and Captan have a similar spectrum of control, but Ziram is a little weaker on downy mildew, and Captan a little weak on black rot.  However, these may be a viable option if these diseases are not a huge threat early on (that is if you had good control last year). These materials are all surface protectants subject to wash-off by rainfall, which means that under heavy, frequent rainfall conditions, application intervals will need to be minimized (7-10 days?) especially for highly susceptible varieties. For that more critical ‘immediate pre-bloom’ spray (and the first post bloom spray), there are other materials like Presidio, Revus, Revus Top, and Zampro that are quite rainfast, very effective, and will provide longer range protection under wet conditions (when you need the protection most and are least likely to be able to stick to shorter spray intervals). However, products like Presidio also require a second active ingredient (like mancozeb) in a tank mix for resistance management purposes (which isn’t a bad idea at this critical spray timing in any case). Other materials like the phosphonates, Ranman, and the strobies /Reason, are probably best utilized outside the critical two sprays around bloom (especially for V. vinifera and highly susceptible hybrids), unless they’re used as tank mix partners with other effective materials. They’re very good materials, but they’re just not the ‘best of the best’.

Figure 4. Yellow oil-spot symptoms of downy mildew on young spring leaves.

One more time for emphasis: the immediate pre bloom and first post bloom (7-14 days later) fungicide applications are the most important you’ll make all year, regardless of variety grown and disease pressure. These two sprays protect your fruit from all the major fungal diseases (Phomopsis, black rot, downy and powdery mildew). Make sure sprayers are properly calibrated and adjusted for best coverage on a bloom-period canopy, spray every row at full rates and shortest intervals, and NEVER extend the interval between these sprays beyond 14 days.

‘Newer’ Fungicides: Aprovia (solatenol) may be worth a try for powdery mildew control (received federal registration in 2015). The active ingredient is related (same FRAC group) to Boscalid (found in Endura and Pristine) and Fluopyram (found in Luna Experience). It also has activity against black rot, but should not be expected to control this disease under high pressure on a susceptible variety.

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Students of Wine – Training Young Vines

As a person that received a degree from Stellenbosch University and stayed in the magnificent Boland town for three of my four years of study, I am ashamed to say that I only visited about four farms to attend wine tastings. There- I said it. You may now judge me for eternity. Or so I thought. Until I learned that the majority of students that study in Stellenbosch hardly ever visit wine farms for tastings or take part in wine tours. So yes, it does make me feel a bit better about myself that I am not the only student that never got around to doing it, but also it makes me a bit sad to think that so many people are surrounded by the beauty of the Winelands and they never get to taste and experience the region’s excellent wines.

After conducting a bit of research (i.e. asking my friends and house mates) I came across quite a number of reasons as to why students don’t visit wine farms or attend tastings. Firstly, there is the inevitable problem of a designated driver. No person (especially a university student) wants to drive all the way to a picturesque wine farm to sit there, gulping down glasses of water, while their friends are enjoying some of the finest wines that the country has to offer. Nobody wants to lose that bet, so it is safer just to stay home and enjoy an evening with Oom Tas.

Secondly- I can relate quite well with this- is the issue of time. To me it felt like I hardly had a moment to spare to take a power nap, never mind taking an afternoon off from assignments and preparing for yet another test or tutorial to visit a wine farm. The academic schedule simply didn’t account for the fact that there are so many wineries to visit in so little time.

For the average full-time student, money is probably the biggest obstacle to overcome. A R50 tasting fee can become quite a lot if it is near the end of the month and you’ve just had a fight with your parents about not being savvy enough with your money. That R50 could probably have bought you some 2-minute noodles to survive for another three days. Of course many students probably won’t even notice they are going three days without food.

All of these so-called “problems” have pretty simple solutions. For one, taxi and transport services to and from wine farms are now readily available at the click of a button on your cell phone. The business opportunity even exists for someone to create a taxi service exclusively for driving people or students around the wine farms of Stellenbosch. On the point of time, the university will simply have to allocate a time slot in each faculty’s schedule for weekly wine tastings. Okay, that may be a teeny bit far-fetched, but let’s be honest here dear students- you will have LOADS of time for wine tasting if you would step away from bingeing on series every now and again. We are only left with the predicament of finances. My suggestion is that wine farms and wineries in the region should have a special student discount. Even if it only is on some days of the week and not others. Or next time you have that late night fast-food craving, just remember all the amazing wines you could actually be tasting if you rather save that money.

Now the question remains, why should wineries be bothered with getting more students to visit their farms and taste their wines? Because they will eventually become the people that DRINK their wine and BUY their wine. Student culture is a part of the market that the wine industry has seemingly ignored or forgot about. There is a huge gap that can easily be filled if the industry as a whole would stop focussing on winning wine awards over the waters and rather get their own people to drink their beautiful wines. Try to think of innovative and creative ways of presenting and bottling wines that will capture the interest of the younger market. And get out there, mingle with the young crowd- hear what they want and what they have to offer. You might be surprised by the tricks an old dog can learn.

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Social microbes and Schizosaccharomyces pombe

By Erika Szymanski of  The Winoscope

If there’s been a theme to the wine microbiology research of the past few years, it’s been microbial communities. Don’t just study one yeast or bacteria at once; look at an environment’s microbial population. And if there’s been a supporting theme, it’s been non-Saccharomyces yeast. Don’t just look at Saccharomyces cerevisiae; pay attention to at least some of the other, marginalized members of the microbial community, and ask what they can do for you.

Those two themes are obviously related. Studying microbial communities means noticing all of the auxiliary players in the environment. Noticing those players usually leads to asking what they’re doing and then to asking how you can exploit them. In another way, though, those two themes don’t overlap half often enough. Plenty of studies of non-Saccharomyces organisms keep on plodding on in the old microbiology tradition of poking and prodding at one or a few species as though they’ll work alone outside the lab.

Very forgivable in one sense. When we don’t know much about an organism in the first place, sussing out its individual characteristics before querying how it behaves in mixed company doesn’t seem unreasonable. It’s also fair to say that plenty of winemaking involves making an effort to kill all existing microbes before inoculating one selected S. cerevisiae strain that’s supposed to work alone. Then again, single-microbe studies remind me of studies of individual primates held in solitary captivity, which are not only deeply unethical but not very useful. What primate, humans included, is going to behave normally when held in solitary confinement? I’m not claiming that solitary microbe studies are unethical, or that they do harm to the microbes involved, but we have plenty of evidence that microbes are social.* Data from solitary confinement studies is limited.

So a new study on Schizosaccharomyces pombe is heading in an interesting direction, but yields data with some limitations for winemaking.

Is S. pombe a spoilage organism? That’s like asking whether dandelions are weeds: yes, in the lawns of a golf course; no, when you’re growing them for salad greens. S. pombe produces unpleasant quantities of acetic acid. It also efficiently (and even completely) metabolizes malic acid. Scott Labs sells S. pombe“teabags” that can be dropped into overly acidic tanks or barrels and then fished back out again, after malic acid has been degraded but before volatile acidity gets out of hand. New research (open-access article) has considered whether some S. pombe strains, carefully selected for low acetic acid production, might be suitable as primary fermentation organisms to be used instead of S. cerevisiae rather than afterwards. The team was able to find several low acetic-producers, able to ferment a must to dryness (albeit they tested final alcohol concentrations in the 12-12.5% range), and still able to simultaneously metabolize malic acid. Their perfunctory sensory testing, however, pretty much only judged for major faults: acidity, reduction, acceptable aroma. So when the researchers conclude that these strains might be a good option for high-acidity musts instead of malolactic fermentation, they’ve yet to account for whether that solution produces a delicious product or merely an acceptable one. Still, these strains might be incredibly useful in combination, or when a vat of something undrinkably acidic needs to be made inoffensive enough to be blended away into something else. But how do these microbes behave in company, when asked to cooperate on the job of making a drinkable wine?

I hope that this project steps forward in two directions. One: better sensory analysis. Two: what happens when S. pombe and S. cerevisiae (and perhaps some other bugs) are asked to play together.

*The Foster Lab at Oxford is up to interesting research on cooperation between microbes and other species. Here’s another (albeit dated; 2007) excellent resource on microbial sociability, from Annual Reviews in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Unfortunately, it’s also behind an academic publisher’s paywall.

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Meet Carsten Miglarina – owner and winemaker of Miglarina Wines

Q. Where were you born ?

“Windhoek, Namibia in 1972.”

Q. Where did you study ?

“ I am self taught. Learning by doing!”  He continues “Although born in Namibia I grew up in South Africa and probably my interest in all things wine began at the tender age of 14 when I attempted to ferment table grapes and make wine ! I then pursued my passion for wine by entering the catering industry and was soon working as a Sommelier at restaurants that included  Le Pont La Tour in London and the Grand Roche in Paarl and then earned my winemaking stripes  as a contract winemaker in South Africa, Germany and Romania and, of course, making my own wine. My most recent winemaking adventure took me to China where I participated in the Nningxia Wine challenge.”

Q. Do you consider your approach to winemaking to be different to others ? 

“I have developed my own style, which at times could be considered different to others and no formal training. I am different to the norm.”

Q. How involved do you get in the vineyard ? 

“I am trying to get more involved in the vineyard but as I source all my grapes and don’t own any vineyard that is not all that easy. The farms I work with are becoming more used to me and, I think, appreciate me taking an interest in the vineyard.” “Having said that all the fruit I use is hand-picked and sorted on sorting tables before crushing.”

Q. Do you have any varieties that you prefer to work with ?

“I started out with shiraz and sauvignon blanc. I still enjoy shiraz but have added Riesling, chenin blanc, chardonnay and Grenache.”

Q. Have you been influenced by a particular winemaker or a region ?

“Mike Dobrovic was a great influence and, of course, travelling and working in various regions, particularly Germany with their fresh, clean white wines has definitely been an influence.”

Q. What would you consider your greatest achievement as a winemaker ?

“Starting my own brand and growing it over the past fourteen years. To me that is really an achievement to be proud of. I started very small with a sauvignon blanc and a shiraz from Franschhoek. My first shiraz I matured in the garage of a friend ! I now have five varietal wines and export to Namibia, Reunion, Europe, Australia, USA and China and sell locally as well.”

Q. What “ secrets” have you “developed “ that make your wines  different to others ? 

With a wry smile “It would no longer be secret if I told you! However my focus is on clean, fresh fruit driven wines and I try to employ various methods to achieve this. “

Q. How important is modern winemaking equipment in your winemaking ?

“Even though I generally utilise the usual machinery and equipment, some modern winemaking equipment allows for interesting experimentation.” Then continues “I keep it as simple as I can in the cellar with minimum intervention and this is my basis for ensuring that my wines are fruit driven and elegant.”

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Going Ape for the Non-sulphur Grape

It’s in everything, from jam to fruit juice. Sulphur, as a simple molecule, is seriously abundant. Some people even refer to humans as sulphur-DNA based life, owing to the glue-like role it plays in keeping our DNA wound up. Its role is not arbitrary. Its highly powerful, life-giving chemical properties are also what give it it’s extreme antimicrobial abilities. It’s nuclear for yeast and bacteria; the gestapo of must, showing little mercy or discrimination.

As much as you might not want to accept it, we primates are pretty similar to fungus. We’ve both got proton pumps, ATP pumps and supercoiled DNA coding. We both love sugar, and yes, believe it or not, alcohol is toxic to us both. And so is sulphur. The same biological pathways that sulphur devastates in yeast are damaged in us too when we ingest this controversial substance. Unsurprisingly, many would agree it’s a repulsive compound, and for those of you blessed enough to have come close to the pure form – it’s certainly not a fresh ocean breeze that caresses your inner nostrils. It’s more like sandpaper spinning on the end of a drill-bit forced up your nose.

It’s no surprise people go ‘ape’ for anything lacking it. Biodynamic wines fly off the shelves locally and internationally; people hate the stuff so much they’ve convinced themselves it’s an “allergen”. Actually it’s just quite nasty.

The problem is, it’s not easy to make a non-sulphured wine. Sulphur dioxide is as ubiquitous in winemaking as the wooden barrel; more so, in fact. It serves a plethora of purposes in protecting the wine against microbes, oxygen and flavour degradation etc. Since these risks appear daily in a winery, it’s necessary to have the ultimate prevention. It’s a bit like seat belts in your car, if your car happens to be driving the Dakar Rally.

It’s not impossible though. An esteemed winemaker, or two, has said “good grapes, good winemaking”. To clarify: good grapes are healthy, non-rotten grapes – preferably with a nice low pH (a nifty natural wine protectant); and good winemaking includes cellar floors, surfaces, pumps and pipes that are clean enough to perform surgery on. After that, if it survives the first week in bottle it’ll go all the way … or so I’ve been told. And there’s plenty of examples to show.

It’s generally a bit of a dicey argument to suggest zero sulphur content in your wines. A great many wineries work hard to protect their wine and simply add the utter minimal, which acts as a failsafe more than anything to prevent flavour loss from oxygen contact. This seems to work, resulting in a severely reduced sulphur content compared to the norm. Of course, this becomes incredibly difficult when working with large quantities of wine, and not everyone has the luxury of working with healthy grapes.

It’s all, however, an unseen hypocrisy; a perversion of ‘the ignorance is bliss’ scenario. Sure, don’t spray chemicals on my lettuce, chia seeds and paleo diet. Fine, don’t ruin my weight loss, low blood pressure and increased self-esteem with sulphur. Wine has a fraction of a percentage of sulphur, please get rid of that, it’s harmful for me and my unborn baby. But…you can leave that toxic 13% alcohol in there – no problem there!

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